Monday, September 9, 2019

Tight Gas

In respect of the low permeability of these reservoirs, the gas must be developed via special techniques including stimulation by hydraulic fracturing (or fracking) in order to be produced commercially.

 Conventional  gas typically is found in reservoirs with permeability >1 mD and can be extracted via traditional techniques. A large proportion of the gas produced globally to date is conventional, and is relatively easy and inexpensive to extract. In contrast, unconventional gas is found in reservoirs with relatively low permeability (<1 mD) and hence cannot be extracted via conventional methods. However, there several types of unconventional gas resources that are currently under production but the three most common types are (1) shale gas, (2) tight gas, and (3) coalbed methane although methane hydrates are often included with these gases under the general umbrella of unconventional gas.

Generally, shale gas is a natural gas contained in predominantly fine, low-permeable sedimentary rocks, in consolidated clay-sized particles, at the scale of nanometers. Gas shale formations are organic-rich formations that are both source rock and reservoir. 

The expected value of permeability to gas flow is in the range of micro- to nanodarcy. The gas retained in such deposits is in the form of adsorbed material on rock, trapped in pore spaces and as an interbedding material with shales. Although the shale gas is usually very clean, it is hard to recover from deposits because of the structural complexity and low hydrodynamic conductivity of shales.

Shale gas is part of a continuum of unconventional gas that progresses from tight gas sand formations, tight gas shale formations to coalbed methane in which horizontal drilling and fracture stimulation technology  can enhance the natural fractures and recover gas from rocks with low permeability. Gas can be found in the pores and fractures of shales and also bound to the matrix, by a process known as adsorption, where the gas molecules adhre to the surfaces within the shale. During enhanced fracture stimulation drilling technology, fluid is pumped into the ground to make the reservoir more permeable, then the fractures are propped open by small particles, and can enable the released gas to flow at commercial rates.  By drilling multilateral horizontal wells followed by hydraulic fracturing, a greater rock volume can be accessed.

More specifically, shale gas is natural gas that is produced from a type of sedimentary rock derived from clastic sources often including mudstones or siltstones, which is known as shale. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of fragments (clasts) of preexisting rocks that have been eroded, transported, deposited, and lithified into new rocks. Shales contain organic material which was lain down along with the rock fragments. 

In areas where conventional resource plays are located, shales can be found in the underlying rock strata and can be the source of the hydrocarbons that have migrated upwards into the reservoir rock. Furthermore, a tight gas reservoir is commonly defined as is a rock with matrix porosity of 10% or less and permeability of 0.1 mD or less , exclusive of fracture permeability. 

Shale gas resource plays differ from conventional gas plays in that the shale acts as both the source for the gas and alsto the zone (also known as the reservoir) in which the gas is trapped. The very low permeability of the rock causes the rock to trap the gas and prevent it from migrating toward the surface. The gas can be held in natural fractures or pore spaces, or can be adsorped onto organic material. With the advancement of drilling and completion technology, this gas can be successfully exploited and extracted commercially as has been proven in various basins in North America.

Aside from permeability, the key properties of shales, when considering gas potential, are total organic carbon (TOC) and thermal maturity. The total organic content is the total amount of organic material (kerogen) present in the rock, expressed as a percentage by weight. Generally, the higher the total organic content, the better the potential for hydrocarbon generation. The thermal maturity of the rock is a measure of the degree to which organic matter contained in the rock has been heated over time and potentially converted into liquid and/or gaseous hydrocarbons. Thermal maturity is measured using vitrinite reflectance (Ro).

Because of the special techniques required for extraction, shale gas can be more expensive than conventional gas to extract. On the other hand, the inplace gas resource can be very large given the significant lateral extent and thickness of many shale formations. However, only a small portion of the total world resources of shale gas is theoretically producible and even less likely to be producible in a commercially viable manner. 

No comments:

Post a Comment